Different practices and policies are being used for computing book value (commonly known as break-up value in Pakistan) of shares. For instance in some cases all the assets including intangibles, deferred costs and fictitious assets are included in considering the book value without regard to their recoverability. In some other cases, intangibles are excluded from the shareholders’ equity. Practices also vary regarding adjustment of contingent and other losses.
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS
Book value per share in the equity capital of the company is the amount each share is worth on the basis of carrying value per balance sheet, prepared in accordance with a framework of recognized accounting standards. Such standards provide that:-
(a) An asset is a resource controlled by the enterprise as a result of past events and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the enterprise.
(b) A liability is a present obligation of the enterprise arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the enterprise of resources embodying economic benefits.
Computation of Book Value Per Share
Book value per share is computed by dividing shareholders’ equity with the number of shares issued. Shareholders’ equity includes:-
a) Paid up capital
b) Revenue reserves and retained earnings, (less accumulated losses if any).
c) Capital reserves
Where the auditors have issued a qualified report and the qualification has been quantified in monetary terms, that amount should be deducted from equity.
Where the qualification is not quantified then the members issuing a certificate regarding book value should mention this fact in the certificate.
d) Surplus created as a result of revaluation of fixed assets.
If the balance sheet of an entity includes balance of surplus on revaluation, the book value per share should be computed separately both, including and excluding such surplus, to enable comparability with those entities where fixed assets have not been revalued.
The book value for any specific purposes in accordance with any statute would have to be computed per requirements or criteria laid down in that respect by the concerned regulatory agency or as set out in the relevant law.
(151st meeting of the Council – April 26-27, 2002)